Warm and sunny one day, cold and wet the next. That sounds like April in Nova Scotia. On those warm days, it's so tempting to start planting, but how to know if it's time? 

Look in any gardening book and you'll be presented with complicated charts that involve knowing when the last frost can be expected in your area and then counting back the required number of days for each vegetable variety. In the Annapolis Valley, the last frost date is slated to be 16th May each year. Yet I know that in my garden, I'm unlikely to get the late frosts that the low lying areas in the valley experience in May. At the same time, I also know that down in the village, the crocus and snowdrops flower a week ahead of mine.

Phenology
When forsythia flowers, it's time to plant peas.

A chart with suggested planting dates, can't possibly know the nuances of my garden. A. few years ago, it occurred to me that since the trees, shrubs, and bulbs seem to know when it's time, I would take my cue from them.  I started planting my peas when the forsythia bursts it's flower buds into a ray of yellow sunshine, such a welcome sight after the monochrome scene of winter. When the dandelions flower I put spuds in the ground and when the apple blossoms start falling like confetti, I plant beans.

The crocuses have come and gone for this year, but while those purple flowers were poking their noses through the cold soil, I planted spinach. Despite the snowfall that we received soon after, the spinach is looking happy. My forsythia bush started flowering on 24th April,  (two days later than last year) and so, last week, I planted peas. Three varieties; Sabre and Lincoln shell peas, and Norli snow peas.

phenology

Well, it turns out there's a name for this madness; Phenology.

Phenology is the study of how plants and animals are influenced by the seasons and changes in the weather and day length. The word was coined in 1849 and is derived from the Greek word φαίνω (phainō), "to show, to bring to light, make to appear". I should have known the Greeks had something to do with it! So it's nothing new and observations of phenological events have been used since ancient agricultural times. Many cultures have traditional phenological proverbs and sayings which indicate a time for action. Maybe you’ve heard the saying “plant corn when the oak leaves are as big as squirrels’ ears,” or “sow Morning Glories when maple trees have full-sized leaves.”

So I've been doing some more reading and here is my list that I'll be trying this year. Of course, even nature can be caught out by a late frost. I'll need to watch for frost warnings and cover anything tender. By using phenology and taking directions from Mother Nature, I'll at least know that the soil is ready and the day length is sufficient.

  • Plant Radishes, Spinach & Parsnips – when crocus start blooming
  • Plant Peas – when Forsythia begins to bloom
  • Plant Beets, Lettuce & Chard - when the daffodils bloom.
  • Plant Potatoes - when the dandelions bloom.
  • Plant Bush Beans - when the apple trees bloom.
  • Plant Pole Beans & Corn - when the apple blossoms fall.
  • Plant Squash & Cucumbers – when lilacs have faded.
  • Transplant Tomatoes - when the Lily of the Valley is in full bloom
  • Transplant Peppers & Eggplants - when irises are flowering.

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